On March 28th, 2023, it will be 100 years since the adoption of the first Constitution of Greater Romania, as a single fundamental law for all the historical provinces unified with the mother country Romania, on December 1st , 1918.
To mark this historic event, Romfilatelia will introduce into circulation on Monday, March 27th, the postage stamps issue entitled Centenary of the Constitution of Unified Romania, consisting of 3 stamps, a perforated souvenir sheet, as well as a First Day Cover.
After the Great Union of December 1st, 1918, and its international recognition, the main objective of the Bucharest authorities was to integrate the historical provinces into the unitary national state. The main components of the integration process were: the adoption of a new Romanian Constitution of the Unified Romania and the legislative, administrative and monetary unification.
On January 19th, 1922, Ion I. C. Brătianu, the “patriarch of Greater Romania”, returned to government together with the National Liberal Party, being appointed prime minister by King Ferdinand I, who testified: “The poisoned enmity between the parties, like everyone here, I am forced to rely on only one man: Ion Brătianu”.
At the proposal of the prime-minister Ion I. C. Brătianu, King Ferdinand I dissolved the legislative bodies and in March 1922 election were held for the Constituant Assemblies that were to give Romania a new Constitution.
On November 28th, 1922, King Ferdinand I opens the new session of the Constituent Assemblies and the Constitutional Committee is convened on December 12th, 1922.
After the debates, voting on the articles followed, so the Fundamental Law was promulgated by Royal Decree no. 934 of March 28th, 1923 of approving and sanctioning the Constitution, by the King Ferdinand I, published together with the report of the Council of Ministers in the Official Gazette no. 282 of March 29th, 1923.
In the first article is specified: “The Kingdom of Romania is a national unitary and indivisible State” and the territory of Romania is inalienable. Also, into a new Constitution is established the official language of the State is the Romanian language, while the colors of the Romanian Flag are: Blue, Yellow and Red, placed vertically. Civil rights and liberties were guaranteed, including for minorities by introducing the wording „irrespective of ethnic origin, language or religion”, but also the universal suffrage.
Property becomes sacred and inviolable, freedom of the press, of assembly, the right of association, the secrecy of correspondence and telephone conversations are guaranteed.
On the three postage stamps of the issue are illustrated the images of the Founders of the Constitution of Unified Romania from 1923, as follows:
On the stamp with the face value of Lei 2.90, the image of King Ferdinand I, known as the Unifier, associated with that of the steel crown with which he was crowned in Alba Iulia.
The stamp with the face value of Lei 4.30 depicts the image of the craftsman of the Fundamental Law and other important moments of Romania’s history, Ion I. C. Brătianu, alongside with the coat of arms of the Romanian Kingdom.
On the stamp with the face value of Lei 11 are reproduced the image of the liberal jurist and senator Constantin G. Dissescu, the rapporteur of the Fundamental Law of 1923 and the “creator of the branch of Romanian constitutional and administrative law”, as well as the image of the coat of arms of the Romanian Senate.
The stamp of the souvenir sheet of the issue with the face value of Lei 34, presents in facsimile the cover of the volume with the text “New Constitution”, framed by two pages of the act of promulgation signed by King Ferdinand I.
Through its principles, the Constitution in 1923 was one of the most advanced and democratic in Europe at that time.
Romfilatelia thanks the representatives of the Constitutional Court of Romania for the documentary and photographic support granted to the development of this postage stamps issue.